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Female Genital Mutilation

Dewi Fajar (K2219021)

Video Title: Breaking the silence on FGM

Date: 4 November 2021

  1. What is being discussed in the video? Explain your answer.
    In that video the speaker, Naima Hassan, tells her personal experience on her relatives in Somalia that being cut in practice of FGM. Her relative is only a representative. Almost all women in Somalia have experienced FGM as a society’s stigma that they believe a value of girl is define good, complient, clean, culturally respectable and to having that values, women need to be cut. She realizes that this problem actually is not an African or Somalian problem, it is a world-wide problem. In the 1800s, clictrodectomy, the surgical removal of the clitoris was an acceptable practice. 200.000 Million girls in the world are at risk of FGM with every year another three million girls will be cut, in UK itself 137.000 girls are at risk of FGM. She also said that there is a season called ‘ Cutting Season’, where girls are forced to go abroad to be cut.
  2. What is the speaker’s main purpose? Explain your answer.
    At first, I thought the main point of the speaker’s speech was to persuade people to stop the practice of FGM, it indeed includes in this video. But I found that she dives deeper, with her professional background working on media to ending violence against women and girls, she invited and persuaded us to encourage media to raise this topic. She said explicitly in the last minutes, ‘ …by increasing media coverage and telling more stories that are relatable can help to shift the value of a girl…’.
  3. How trustworthy is this video? Who is the speaker? What is the source? Do you think the source and the speaker are trustworthy?
    The speaker is Naimah Hassan. She is a founding member and programme director of the Global Media Campaign, a non-profit organisation that uses media to create self-sustaining action to ending violence against women and girls. This video, the speaker, and the source are trustworthy. The speaker and her background is related to the things that she was talking about. The data she used for the video I found that she was using the reputable resources. She said that ‘Every year 3 million girls suffer female genital mutilation.’ she took from the reputable source, WHO. Also she said, ‘With 200 million around the world at risk of being cut,’ taken from the WHO website.
  4. What the speaker’s attitude or tone towards the subject? Does he/she seem to agree or disagree with it? Explain your answer.
    The speaker’s attitude towards the subject is in disagreement. She said in strong way that she is fighting against the practice of FGM and she invited and persuaded people to stop the practice of FGM.
  5. Does the speaker put forward valid or strong arguments? How does he/she support the key points? Explain your answer.
    I do loves the way she deliver her main and central idea to persuade the audience to increase the idea of raising the issue of FGM through media. Here are the storyline Raise the issue of FGM → Tells the example of successful media to stop FGM (Ifrah case in Somalia)→ Tell the solution to raise the media
  6. Explain how this article will help contribute to your larger group project.
    https://cscp.org.uk/parents-and-carers/female-genital-mutilation/ https://www.who.int/health-topics/female-genital-mutilation#tab=tab_1 https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/female-genital-mutilation https://theconversation.com/the-rise-and-fall-of-fgm-in-victorian-london-38327 Some data I found from that articles helps me to strengthen my argument about how important is to stop the practice of FGM. FGM Case from UK also help me to broad my argument that this case is also happen in a modern country like UK.

Video Title: Countering myths about FGM/C

Date: 4 November 2021

  1. What is being discussed in the video? Explain your answer.
    The speaker talking about myths around female genital mutilation or cutting and about taboos around female sexuality particulary about female sexual anatomy and physiology. Later on, she open the outpatient clinic for girls and women with female genital mutilation at Geneva University Hospitals. She also talk about the types of FGM, such as; pricking or piercing of the clitoral hood; there is cutting of the clitoral hood or the external part of the clitoris, there is excision of the labia with or without excision of the external part of the clitoris, and infibulition. She also shares about four myths in FGM; -Women that have been cut share all the same experience, -Myth to the clitoris is a small organ that is removed during the cutting, -Women that are cut have a mild or inexistent sexual response, -Women that are not cut are hyper sexual
  2. What is the speaker’s main purpose? Explain your answer.
    She is trying to countering myths about FGM/C. In that video, she mentions four myths about FGM/C and women sexuality and tries to break the glass ceiling.
  3. How trustworthy is this video? Who is the speaker? What is the source? Do you think the source and the speaker are trustworthy?
    Jasmine Abdulcadir, MD PD FECSM, is an obstetrician and gynecologist. She works as Staff physician, responsible for the Gynaecological and Obstetrical Emergency Unit. She implemented and is responsible of the Outpatient clinic for women and girls living with female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) of the Geneva University Hospitals, which provides health education, prevention, counseling and culturally sensitive, clinical, surgical and psychosexual care for women and girls who experienced FGM/C. Jasmine Abdulcadir teaches at the Reproduction Unit of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva. Together with two colleagues, a biologist and a historian, she introduced a first course on the history, anatomy and biology of the clitoris for the 2nd year medical students of the University of Geneva. She also teaches at national and international training courses to improve knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare professionals working with women and girls with FGM/C. She has worked as consultant and currently collaborates at the Department of Reproductive Health and Research, Adolescents and at-risk populations team, World Health Organization (WHO) on FGM/C. She is consultant at the Swiss Network against female circumcision and member of the G3 French speaking network on FGM/C. The G3 has organized the first and second international experts’ meeting on FGM/C in 2017 and 2018, to improve data sharing and collaboration among healthcare professionals, researchers, advocates and others working on care and prevention of genital cutting. She is a researcher and authored several scientific articles and chapters on the improvement of reproductive and sexual health of women with FGM/C. In Somalia, 98% women and girls have been cut → https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/country_profiles/Somalia/FGMC_SOM.pdf ‘With 200 million around the world at risk of being cut,’ taken from the WHO website. Types of FGM source → https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/female-genital-mutilation/ The purpose of the speaker is she is trying to persuade the audience to be honest with the information and ask society to break the myths so that they can make the wise decision. ‘I believe that countering myths about female genital mutilation or cutting and breaking taboos around female sexuality is very important. We must have honest factually based conversations with boys, men, girls and women. It is essential because it makes informed decisions. We can make informed decisions about our sexual and reproductive lives and in the future about those of our sons and our daughters…’
  4. What the speaker’s attitude or tone towards the subject? Does he/she seem to agree or disagree with it? Explain your answer.
    The speaker seems disagree to the practice of FGM. That can be seen on how she deliver some dangerous facts and data about FGM.
  5. Does the speaker put forward valid or strong arguments? How does he/she support the key points? Explain your answer.
    Yes, she does especially when she is trying to break the myths by dive-deep giving the audience the real and valid data.
  6. Explain how this article will help contribute to your larger group project.
    Ending FGM/C in Somalia Performing Surgery to Reverse FGM (Excerpt from ‘The Cut That Heals’)

Video Title: A time for excision: European women visiting ‘home’ countries face the nightmare of FGM

Date: 11 November 2021

  1. What is being discussed in the video? Explain your answer.
    The video discuss about women in Europe are coming back home to have a ‘circumcision season’ to be cut in their own country.
  2. What is the speaker’s main purpose? Explain your answer.
    The speaker main purpose in this video is that the speaker want to inform the viewer about the culture of FGM also happen in Europe and this cruel cut still exists.
  3. How trustworthy is this video? Who is the speaker? What is the source? Do you think the source and the speaker are trustworthy?
    I could say that this video is so trustworthy because lot of scenes in that video mentioning the source of the data. Also this video is sound so real because it is a news-documentary based on the real event.
  4. What the speaker’s attitude or tone towards the subject? Does he/she seem to agree or disagree with it? Explain your answer.
    The speaker’s is obviously stand against the practice of FGM. It can be seen that in the early video the speaker tends to show the audience about some facts and conditions happen in Somalia but then after that comes a scene of the founder of one of the clinic to help Somalian to stop the practice of FGM.
  5. Does the speaker put forward valid or strong arguments? How does he/she support the key points? Explain your answer.
    Yes, she/he does. As I have already mentioned it before, at video mentioning the source of the data. Also the video provides some speakers that experiencing by their own on FGM pratice that will help strengthen the speaker main opinion/statement.
  6. Explain how this article will help contribute to your larger group project.
    https://www.endfgm.eu/female-genital-mutilation/fgm-in-europe/ https://www.equalitynow.org/fgm_in_europe/ These articles help me to boarden my data about FGM happening in Europe.

Video Title: FGM: How to Face the Desert of Indifference

Date: 11 November 2021

  1. What is being discussed in the video? Explain your answer.
    In that video, the speaker tells the audience by using her personal experience how is her struggles to face FGM in Africa. In that early beginning of the video, the speaker tells the audience about some facts of FGM, one of them is about the types of FGM itself. In addition, she highlights that FGM has nothing to do with religion and it predates Islam and all the Abrahamic religion.
  2. What is the speaker’s main purpose? Explain your answer.
    I think the speaker main purpose is to persuade people to empower the communities that fight against FGM practices. Somehow, I could see the bias on what the speakers is saying, at first I thought that it will be talking about FGM and how it practicely different in the dessert but turns out it is not. It mostly talking about the ‘role’ of the speaker changing the mindset of African about FGM and shows that she is the ‘hero’ of FGM. I could see why she did that, in which way to empower women to be like her, to bold and strong enough standing against FGM, but for me it is overated to ‘show-up’ her role.
  3. How trustworthy is this video? Who is the speaker? What is the source? Do you think the source and the speaker are trustworthy?
    The facts that I have found toward the video are: – Africa is the home for the largest FGM practice in countries : valid Source: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/eighty-cent-fgm-cases-happen-africa#:~:text=%22Somalia%2C%20for%20example%2C%20has,the%20Greater%20Horn%20of%20Africa – FGM happens in 28 countries in Africa : it should be in 29 countries Source: https://www.unfpa.org/resources/female-genital-mutilation-fgm-frequently-asked-questions#:~:text=In%20Africa%2C%20FGM%20is%20known,%2C%20Mauritania%2C%20Niger%2C%20Nigeria%2C – FGM has 4 types : valid Source: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43839/9789241596442_eng.pdf;jsessionid=214C1525A70DB3E938EF4064F3FCDF41?sequence=1 – Gambia is a country that 76% of women have experienced FGM : valid Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3702244/#:~:text=Female%20genital%20mutilation%2Fcutting%20 – Globally, 200 million women have undergone FGM practice Source : https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/female-genital-mutilation/
  4. What the speaker’s attitude or tone towards the subject? Does he/she seem to agree or disagree with it? Explain your answer.
    The speaker is standing against the FGM practice, it is so much clear by telling the audience how the speaker has experience FGM and that is the reason why she dedicate herself to fight for women’s right.
  5. Does the speaker put forward valid or strong arguments? How does he/she support the key points? Explain your answer.
    Yes, she does. But again, it seems like the speaker has a bias between the topic she would like to deliver and the content of the video. Only small part of the video’s talking about how women experience FGM in Africa (it depict as the word ‘desert’) differently.
  6. Explain how this article will help contribute to your larger group project.
    These articles below will help contain data to strengthen my opinion how FGM has practices in Africa. https://www.unfpa.org/resources/female-genital-mutilation-fgm-frequently-asked-questions#:~:text=In%20Africa%2C%20FGM%20is%20known,%2C%20Mauritania%2C%20Niger%2C%20Nigeria%2C https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536110/
    FGM in Africa
    https://reliefweb.int/report/world/eighty-cent-fgm-cases-happen-africa

Video Title: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJ5fzUWpPp0&t=43s

Date: 18 November 2021

  1. What is being discussed in the video? Explain your answer.
    At the beginning of the video, the speaker tells the audience about her experience undergone the FGM type 1. She adds talking about the myths in FGM that clitoris is dangerous organ that can kill baby afterbirth. The main part, speaker share her stories fighting against FGM. She still suffers from urinary problems, she has to add several operations during her childhood, she had a chronic pain on her ‘scars’ on age 6-23, she had psychological pshycosexual complication, she had a really painful sex.
  2. What is the speaker’s main purpose? Explain your answer.
    I think there is an implicit purpose that the speaker would like to deliver. As an opening, the speaker tends to use her personal experience of how FGM effects her life and how the speaker recover from it. She finds herself a ‘new life’ after having the clitoral reconstruction. A clitoral reconstruction is just an ‘icon’, it shows that and suggest that the UK government (in that case) to offer support, not only prevention, but also education, safeguarding, and prosecution to help FGM fighter.
  3. How trustworthy is this video? Who is the speaker? What is the source? Do you think the source and the speaker are trustworthy?
    I did not see many facts or data that the speaker is trying to raise up in that video but here what I found: – FGM has 4 types : valid Source: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43839/9789241596442_eng.pdf;jsessionid=214C1525A70DB3E938EF4064F3FCDF41?sequence=1 – Female genital mutilation is performed without anesthesia : not so true, some of them are practiced with local anesthesia (that also have no medical basis) Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/nursing-and-health-professions/female-genital-mutilation-type-iii
  4. What the speaker’s attitude or tone towards the subject? Does he/she seem to agree or disagree with it? Explain your answer.
    The speaker is disagree to FGM practice. She is a victim (fighter) of FGM and stand to empower women as a victim of FGM that FGM does not define who are they. It can see through the clinic that she build, the FGM Hope Clinic to help women or girl that undergone FGM.
  5. Does the speaker put forward valid or strong arguments? How does he/she support the key points? Explain your answer.
    Regarding to the topic of ‘The Effect of FGM’ itself, in my opinion the speaker does not bring the data or the fact that can strengthen her position and opinion. She only use her experience to tells the audience about the effect of FGM at least for her herself. It is better for her to bring the data (for example) about medical effect on women that have undergone FGM.
  6. Explain how this article will help contribute to your larger group project.
    I found references talking about what are the effect of FGM on women’s health and it helps me to broaden my data and strengthen my opinion about the dangerous of FGM https://www.unfpa.org/news/5-ways-female-genital-mutilation-undermines-health-women-and-girls https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-4755-8-26 https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/11/e006316

Video Title: The Cruel Cut

Date: 18 November 2021

  1. What is being discussed in the video? Explain your answer.
    Similar to previous video, Leyla starts the presentation by telling the audience her personal story undergone the FGM that practice by her family. She suffer from postnatal depression, sexual dysfunction. She says that she also has a trauma from this practice. Leyla tells we need to change the language that we use when we talk about FGM. It’s about oppressing women’s bodies. It’s about controlling women’s sexuality, and that’s a global issue. She starts a platform called The Face of Defiance which means ‘we have survived’. This platform share stories of many women that ‘survived’ from FGM practice in order to empower other women and men to stop the FGM practice. So, it’s important that we tell these stories.
  2. What is the speaker’s main purpose? Explain your answer.
    This video has an implicit goals that we need tp empower the society by telling story and spread the awareness of the dangerous of FGM practice.
  3. How trustworthy is this video? Who is the speaker? What is the source? Do you think the source and the speaker are trustworthy?
    200+ million girls are undergone the FGM : valid Source: https://www.who.int/health-topics/female-genital-mutilation#tab=tab_1 3 million girls are at risk of FGM every years : valid Source: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/female-genital-mutilation 500.000 women in Europe are living with FGM : valid Source: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20180202IPR97032/zero-tolerance-for-female-genital-mutilation Every 11 second, a girl undergoes FGM : unknown
  4. What the speaker’s attitude or tone towards the subject? Does he/she seem to agree or disagree with it? Explain your answer.
    The speaker seems to disagree with the practice of FGM. It can be seen that she is initiating a platform that helps women that undergone the FGM practice to share stories to empower women and men out there about the FGM information.
  5. Does the speaker put forward valid or strong arguments? How does he/she support the key points? Explain your answer.
    Yes, she does. She puts the valid data about FGM but does not mention any relative data to support how ‘cruel’ is this cut.
  6. Explain how this article will help contribute to your larger group project.
    Similar to the previous video, I found references talking about what are the effect of FGM on women’s health and it helps me to broaden my data and strengthen my opinion about the dangerous of FGM. https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-017-0371-9 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ogi/2018/7365715/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27938869/

Video Title: This Indonesian toddler is about to undergo FGM

Date: 25 November 2021

  1. What is being discussed in the video? Explain your answer.
    This video is sort of interview video, and it shows how the practice of FGM still exist by several reasons, that are the religious reason and the cultural ones.
  2. What is the speaker’s main purpose? Explain your answer.
    The speaker is trying to inform the audience about the real-experience of FGM Practice in Indonesia by providing the traditional citizen practice FGM said their thought on FGM.
  3. How trustworthy is this video? Who is the speaker? What is the source? Do you think the source and the speaker are trustworthy?
    “If we do not circumcise her, she will be mentally disabled” : not valid “We need to do this, so that she enters Islam” : not valid 49% girls under 15 in Indonesia undergone the FGM Practice : valid Source: https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/female-genital-mutilation/
  4. What the speaker’s attitude or tone towards the subject? Does he/she seem to agree or disagree with it? Explain your answer.
    The speaker is not explicitly their position. At the beginning of the video, the audiences told by some scenes citizen put a strong opinion and thought on why they are practicing FGM but then at the end of the video, it provides a reputable speaker to break the wrong previous statements.
  5. Does the speaker put forward valid or strong arguments? How does he/she support the key points? Explain your answer.
    In my opinion, the speaker delivers weak data to strengthen the argument to break the previous wrong one. Also it is better to have a ‘responsible’ speaker on religion side when it talks about religion reasons why FGM is practiced in Indonesia.
  6. Explain how this article will help contribute to your larger group project.
    https://www.voanews.com/a/east-asia-pacific_study-indonesians-embrace-fgm-religious-traditional-practice/6183940.html https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-women-fgm-idUSKCN11R25Q

Video Title: The Road to Ending Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting (FGM/C) in Indonesia

Date: 25 November 2021

  1. What is being discussed in the video? Explain your answer.
    The video tells a lot about how P2GP/FGM/C in Indonesia and how Indonesian Government take a right step against in. History of P2GP, in 2016 for the first time the government of Indonesia implemented the P2GP. In 2016-2017, studies were carried out in 10 provinces. In 2017-2020, the FGM/C advocacy were strengthened through the development of advocacy guidelines. In 2019-2020, Indonesian government developed and launched The Roadmap and Action Plan of The Prevention of FGM/C in 2030. In 2020, Indonesian government put the standards of decreasing percentage of women aged 15-49 as an indicator of SGDs.
  2. What is the speaker’s main purpose? Explain your answer.
    The speaker is not only giving the information about the steps that Indonesian government now is currently taking and working on FGM practice, but also persuade the viewers especially Indonesian citizen to take the part to stop the practice of FGM as it tells at the end of the video.
  3. How trustworthy is this video? Who is the speaker? What is the source? Do you think the source and the speaker are trustworthy?
    ‘With 200 million around the world at risk of being cut,’ taken from the WHO website. 49% girls under 15 in Indonesia undergone the FGM Practice : valid
  4. What the speaker’s attitude or tone towards the subject? Does he/she seem to agree or disagree with it? Explain your answer.
    The speaker is clearly say loudly ‘no’ to FGM Practice in Indonesia. It can be seen at the end of the video that the speaker is invited the viewers to take a part of prevention of FGM.
  5. Does the speaker put forward valid or strong arguments? How does he/she support the key points? Explain your answer.
    The topic that the speaker is trying to rise up is the journey to stop FGM in Indonesia and how Indonesian government react on it, I think it do not need to show up many data in details and it is enough to show the data of FGM in Indonesia in early beginning of the video to educate the viewer.
  6. Explain how this article will help contribute to your larger group project.
    https://www.refworld.org/docid/46d57879c.html https://en.komnasperempuan.go.id/file/2020/INTERSECTION%20BETWEEN%20TRADITION&%20MODERNITY%20A%20Qualitative%20Study%20on%20Female%20Genital%20Mutilation-Cutting.pdf https://theconversation.com/female-genital-cutting-common-in-indonesia-offered-as-part-of-child-delivery-by-birth-clinics-54379#:~:text=Around%2060%20million%20women%2C%20or,or%20sunat%20perempuan%20in%20Indonesia. https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/country_profiles/Indonesia/FGM_IDN.pdf